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Introduction  
     
     
Important criteria for lairage and keeping animals overnight  
     
     
  At larger slaughterhouses, cattle are often kept in single-animal pens (known as the Uddevalla system), which consist of a number of rows with individual stalls. This system is built together with raceways so that animals are moved in and out of the rows via passages from the unloading area towards the stunning. Gates, often of guillotine type, are used to close/open rows and separate the individual stalls.  
     
     
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  Lairage of cattle. Photograph: Lotta Berg, SLU.  
     
     
  This system is normally supplemented with group pens for accommodation of, for example, groups of young animals. Fully grown bulls and animals with long horns are examples of animals which may have problems fitting into the row system, and so these are often kept in pens, either individually or in groups. Calves are often placed in group pens. Smaller slaughterhouses do not normally have a row system.  
     
  In row systems, animals are normally fed and watered individually using drinkers, mangers and feed racks. These are also often used in pens, but animals may also be fed on the floor there and be given water in buckets.  
     
     
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